APA Citation Style Guide

APA Citation Style Guide

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. You’ll most likely be use the APA format if your paper is on a science topic. Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

Citing Within Text

When you borrow the ideas of other scholars, you need to reference their work. References are identified in the body of the paper parenthetically by the author’s last name and date of publication. For example:

In another study, Wilson and Weiss (1991) found that real life explanations of frightening movie scenes had only a limited effect on reducing children’s emotional reactions.


Another study found that real life explanations of frightening movie scenes had only a limited effect on reducing children’s emotional reactions (Wilson & Weiss, 1991).

Authors With the Same Last Name

To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.

(E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 1998)

Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year

If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.

Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that…

Unknown Author

If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001).
Quoting Within Text

When you quote directly from other scholars, the format changes slightly. For example:

According to Proctor and Adler (1991), “Integrating film into the interpersonal communication course does not require radical changes in course goals or teaching” (p. 394).


As scholars have noted, “Researchers have yet to understand the mechanisms that produce the satisfaction-communication relationship” (Proctor & Adler, 1991, p. 394).

Notice that citing within text does NOT require a page number, while “quoting within text” DOES.

When the quote is longer than 40 words, it must be typed (without quotation marks) as a freestanding text that begins on a new line and is indented five spaces from the left margin. Like this:

Hirokawa, Mickey, and Miura (1991) determined that:

Men and women responding to the high-legitimacy scenario employed less polite tactics than those responding to the low-legitimacy scenario, but this was more true of the men than the women. For example, men and women with request legitimacy were more likely to produce statements like: You know you’re not going to score a lot of points around here if you take off on your vacation in the middle of this project. (p. 433)

Sample paper in APA Citation Style Guide

Obesity Problem in USA Essay


Obesity signifies an overload total of body fat. If someone’s bodyweight is in any case 20% loftier than what it be supposed to be, he or she is normally considered as obese. If persons Body Mass Index (BMI) is between 25 and 29.9 he or she is considered as an overweight. If a person BMI is 30 or over he or she is considered as obese. Obesity has been affecting a lot of the American populace on a harmful level. Unless prospective on how to fight this battle is changed, we will continue to lose. Pediatricians, Parents, and even political leaders and Government are focused on promoting healthy weight in kids because obesity is becoming a huge epidemic in the United States. In this paper we are going to discuss about the various literature review on trends of obesity in USA, academic knowledge impacts and principles of active citizenship might have effect on the contemporary issue of obesity during the subsequent 5 to 10 years.

Smith, Elizabeth, in her article Healthy Lifestyles sum ups not merely the enormous medical circumstances that can have an result on overweight children (cataract. liver disease, diabetes, high cholesterol & blood pressure bone and joint problems, sleep apnea, etc.), but lots of the renowned sources. Genetically, there is enough numerical corroboration to illustrate that overweight and obese adults are further expected to have obese children, and that explicit racial/ethnic settings are more have an outcome on than others. In the fetal neighboring, elevated folic acid eating can demonstrate the way to health dilemmas in a fetus and infant, and denied nutrition by the mother as well destructively have an result on the fetus. In accumulation, the social setting in which the infant is raised, in exacting in expressions of work out and nutrition, will produce patterns go behind by the child for mainly in all probability their whole life.

As per to Brownwell (1982), if “cure” from obesity is described as decrease to ultimate weight and maintenance of that weight for five years, an individual is additional expected to recuperate from the majority types of cancer than from obesity” (Krieshok & Karpowitz, (1988). Even though there isn’t a cure, there are things that can be done to avert several from being obese.

There are 3 physiological providers that assist make the function of obesity easier to comprehend. They are internal variables, external variables, and mediated variables. Internal variables are ones that a person is not capable to control for example the intestines size and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. External variables are ones in which a individual has power over type of food, variety, and physical activity. Finally, mediated variables are a modest of both. The individual might have a little control however there are as well a number of things out of their control.

Egger (2010) in his article 5 myths about hunger in America concentrates on how hunger cycle in children affects learning ability which tend to increases, reduces employment rates, school dropout rates thus diminishing national economic security while promoting a life of crime. He inter connects hunger and obesity again by centering on how youthful adults are too obese to work with the military, as a result decreasing the numeral of military qualified citizens and consequently decreasing national security. Obese children are in addition additional likely to be turn into obese as adults, thus increasing their enduring risk of grave health problems for example heart disease andstroke.

How academic knowledge forces the social elements and institutions of both global and local communities

The subsequent subject to cover up is how academic knowledge forces the social elements and institutions of both global and local communities. Elements of Social are actually anguished from obesity and the illness that approach down with it. Over time, with the rising obesity rate, a number of schools have started by means of diverse strategies to tackle the concern for habits of poor diet and growing numeral of obese students. The majority of children who are obese will be overweight as an adult additionally. “As an alternative of focusing the problem on individual students, policies of school should effect on the school cultural and physical environment which can, consecutively, be additional conductive to improving dietary behaviors of student ” (Vecchiarelli, Takayanagi, & Neumann, 2006). These changes can’t simply occur at school and be fruitful except they are changed habits also outside of school. Two-thirds of U.S. adults citizens are obese or overweight, Rates of obesity and overweight. In wide-ranging are advanced in the South and Midwest, superior for Hispanic men than African-American Caucasian men, superior for Hispanic, African-American and women than Caucasian women, and tend to increase with age.. (Ogden, C. L., Carroll)

The United States is a free country where we are allowed to choose and pick whatever restaurants we eat at, order at those restaurants, how a good deal food we purchase at the grocery store, the type of food we acquire at the grocery store, etc.Twenty percent of children in US are considered overweight or obese at age 11. It has various severe enduring effects for your health, and it is a important cause of preventable deaths in the USA Obesity can lead to high blood pressure diabetes, , and heart disease If left untreated, . Even though we are living in a nation with technological advancement and great economic power we have negligible quantity of realistic nutritional facts. Currently we are existing in a territory which is plagued with obesity.

US health Policymakers are saying that aggressive action need to be taken to shoot the expansion of theobesityplague in the United States, which is effecting the nation’s health-care system, pushing many of Americans into an early on grave every year and hazarding the lives of thousands ofkids, a lot of of whom are or obese heavy prior to they go into kindergarten. Several local and state governments have intended putting into practice an excise tax on sugar-enhanced drinks.[ Caraher M, Cowburn]

Obesity rates Over the past 20 years for preschool children (aged 2-5) and adolescents (aged 12-19) has almost doubled and for elementary children aged 6-11, have been increased by almost three-fold. These trends also have significant long-term impacts. Adolescents who are overweight have a 60% more chance of becoming obese adults. [USDA Economic Research Service] If one of the parent is overweight or obese, that number jumps to 75%. If this trend is not changed, there is a danger than one in every three children born today will develop Type 2 diabetes with other obesity related illnesses, and as a result of which , this generation of children may become less healthy than their parents.

There are many incidents which propose that obesity is more described than merely a food lover’s ailment. Obesity is an epidemic in the other developed countries including USA. Other than half of Americans are obese, as well as at any rate one in four children. Virtually one-third of them are overweight. Obesity is increasing in the society because food is abundant and most of us do routine work that require little to no physical activity.

There are numerous debates which professionals seem to be trying to do that are linked to the cause of obesity, which makes impossible to just place the blame on one thing, some are blaming advertisers by trying to persuade kids from what seems like immaturity to purchase their products.The main factors are one’s stress management, one’s environment, and one’s genetic makeup.

Factors that are included in obesity are, socioeconomic, psychological, genetic, behavioral, cultural, environmental or metabolic. The most common are psychological and genetics (emotional; for the need of ice cream, for example). Environmental and Behavioral changes in the American way of life as well as media influences and alterations in the diet of people are all factors that have contributed to the 30% increase in the average daily caloric intake. Someone’s environment plays a very significant factor on our lifestyle in addition to the kinds of food we consume. Somebody who lives on a ranch For instance be inclined to devour more of natural foods than somebody who subsists in an urban surroundings and consume additional of processed food.

The other major factor to the increase in obesity rates is the due to decreased physical activity of Americans, as a result of increased use of technology such as television, cars,and computers as well as decreasing physical education in schools. The biggest factor in America for the obesity rate is too much inactiveness. Every little bit of exercise counts from sacrificing the elevator for the stairs to parking further to walk into the store, by simply playing outside with your kids these all are little solutions to ending obesity. As large shopping malls and out-of-town supermarkets started to appear, people started driving their cars to get their provisions. Dependence on the car for travelling has become so intense that many people will impel even if their purpose is merely half-a-mile away.

Obesity has been the most ordinary sort of undernourishment and one of the maximum with health dangers to life in the US today, and it can be averted. Obesity has many factors that cannot be overlooked. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has set a aim of dipping the obesity of childhood pace to 15 percent by 2025, and to doing so kids aged 5 to 15 would require to decrease an average of 64 calories a day Healthy People 2020is a comprehensive document of national health-related aims and objectives., US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Since 1980 has publishedHealthy Peoplereports every decade that: identify national health targets for ten years, encourage collaborations across various sectors, , guide individuals toward making informed health decisions and measure the impact of prevention activity.

The new aim could be achieved by diminishing calorie intake, increasing physical activity or both. Organizations such as advanced-practice nurse [APNs ]are well positioned to direct their advocacy efforts at measures to reduce obesity. The APNs are eminently qualified to lead in their communities and are using various strategies for combating obesity. These goals among other things include specific recommendations that address, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, nutritional labeling, the availability of lower-calorie children’s meals in restaurants, marketing of food and beverages to children, and) to monitor and track a child’s body-mass index and provide interventions using the electronic medical record (EMR].

As APNs work with health systems of care, such as medical care organizations and health care organizations, and the adoption of the EMR, they can accelerate their acquisition of knowledge in the areas of, weight management, food, nutrition and physical activity. By Telling someone to stop simply eating will not cure the obesity disease because it needs to be something that is in the genes of the person. By telling someone simply to exercise more will not cure the obesity disease because food can be used as an outlet for stress. There is no clean-cut cause of obese, so there will never be a clear cut solution either.

Governments can also help reduce obesity, may experts say, by providing farmers’ markets and supermarkets with inducements to tender healthier foods and set up their trades in low down income areas.[ Smed S, Jensen JD, Denver]. Many, local governments schools and hospitals around the country have implemented policies to reduce obesity by banning the sale and serving of sweetened sips, which are lofty in calories and have modest or no nourishment value.

The solution is as very simple as eating the same amount of food –other than with healthier alternatives and a enduring diet, for instance being vegetarianism. Exercising is also very significant to keep healthy and fit other than, a number of fats are vital for the body as stored energy, insulation heat, and padding.

Principles of active citizenship

Active citizenship might as well impact the issue with obesity throughout the subsequent 5 to 10 years with citizens participation. Along with school and home based intervention, it needs to get even superior with government and community based interventions. Education is the key. By community activities organizing, walks can be planned to support physical activity, playgrounds can be made for things similar to basketball and additional physical activity, paths can be prepared for children to ride bikes on,. By approaching together as a community and support these things in our children, obesity can reduce significantly over the next 5 to 10 years. Leaving fast food chains alone and making foods at home is as well a foremost factor in obesity preventing.

Keeping physically active Eating healthy and should be a part of a lifelong daily routine. No diet plan should be encouraged as a provisional eating arrangement, other than rather a permanent plan for healthy lifestyle eating Permanentand Successful weight lossis best achieved by changing how and when you eat, modifying your behavior by increased physical activity.. While some might undergo weight-loss surgery while other patients may be prescribed medication,. It must involve long-term For a plan to do well, alters in the routines of the whole family. The obese should not be singled out. Parents, siblings, including other family members living in the home will all benefit from a shift toward a healthier lifestyle.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention[CDC] recommends that, child caregivers, parents and schools should restrict admission to sugar-enhanced brinks, and put back them with low-fat, free milk, water or and a restricted quantity of 100 percent fruit juices. In early childhood, children should be given, low fat healthy snacks and take part in physical activity every day.

The CDC also suggest parents to persuade their kids to live actually lively lives and decrease television sighting, as children are controlled by ads that endorse detrimental beverages and foods Their television viewing should be limited to no more than ten hours per week… Weight lossby itself is hardly ever an objective in an obese child or teenager.

By having a lifelong eating plan to a certain extent than a diet for the purpose in weight loss, it possibly will be a great deal easier to remain fit and the weight off. Somewhat, the goal is to sluggish weight gain or simply to preserve a weight over time. The plan is to let the child to raise into his or her body mass progressively, above time. This perhaps will acquire a year or two, or more longer, relying on the child’s age, body mass, and development pattern.[ Moss BG, Yeaton WH (2011]

With the Communities Putting Prevention to Work and First Lady’s “Let’s Move” initiative, the U.S. Government While has made planned investments in prevention, these initiatives efforts demonstrates comparatively diminutive steps forward, and future public health prevention programs remain under threat., To make true advances should be part of concerted efforts by national and local governmental, health, and non–profit organizations, advertisers food companies, and individuals to construct healthy weights the custom somewhat than the exception.


In conclusion, obesity has on no account been further on the rise. It is affecting people individually in addition to a community and also worldwide. “The medical cost combined connected with these preventable diseases treatment are approximated to enhance by $48-66 billion/year in the USA by 2030. Therefore, efficient policies to support healthier weight as well have benefits of economic by approaching together as a community, assuming the responsibilities as adults and setting fine examples for our children, we can avert obesity and reduce the majority chronic diseases that effect from it.

APA Citation Style Guide

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