ASA Citation Format
The American Sociological Association Style is intended for use by authors preparing manuscripts for publication in ASA journals. ASA style requires that sources receive attribution in the text by the use of parenthetical in-text references.
Manuscript Format According to ASA style guide 5th edition
- All text (including footnotes, references, and endnote) must be doubled spaced.
- Text must be in 12-point Times New Roman (Times is also acceptable)
- Block quotes may be single-spaced.
- Margins must be at least 1.25 inches on all four sides
- A separate title page including title of paper, author(s) and institution(s) of author(s) (list vertically if more than one author).
- If required, on a separate page provide a short (150-200 word) abstract headed with the title.
- Begin the text of the paper on a separate page headed with the title of the paper.
In-Text Citation Guidelines
If author’s name is in the text, follow it with the publication year in parentheses:
When Chu (1977) studied…
If the author’s name is not in the text, enclose the last name and year in parentheses:
When the study was completed… (Jones 1994)
If citing two or more works by the same author:
According to William J. Wilson (1978, 1987) race and class play a significant role in today’s society.
If citing works by several authors:
After the Civil Rights movement a growing number of racial/ethnic scholars such as Almaguer (1975), Barrera (1978), and Takaki (1979) challenged…
The subjects of this study seemed to perform their duties as determined by the institutional arrangements within which they worked (Watson, Kumar, and Michaelsen 1993; Cox, Lobel, and McLoed 1991; Fitzgerald 1993).
For three or more authors, give all last names in the first citation in the text; afterwards use the first name and et al.:
(Holland, Holt, Levi, and Beckett 1983) thereafter (Holland et al. 1989)
If multiple sources are cited for the same statement, the author and publication year should be distinguished from other texts with a semi-colon. Cited texts should be arranged by author name or by date; arrangement should be consistent throughout the paper.
Example: Some studies have refuted these arguments (Benson 1993; Nguyen 1999; Brown and Goggans 2000).
Pages should be numbered consecutively (1, 2, 3…) starting with the title page and including the references page(s), or as specified by journal or course instructor.
Tables and Figures
Number tables consecutively (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3).
Number figures consecutively (Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3).
References Page Formatting
References follow the text and endnotes in a separate section headed “References.”
- All references cited in the text must be listed and vice-versa.
- Remember: Like all other parts of the manuscript, references should be
- List references in alphabetical order by authors’ last names.
- Use hanging indention (see examples below).
- Invert the author’s name (type the last name first). If there are two or more authors,
- invert only the first author’s name.
- Arrange multiple items by the same author in order by year of publication, earliest
- year first.
- Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by adding letters (e.g. 1993a,
- 1993b, 1993c).
- Use italics for book and periodical titles (underline if italics are not available).
- If no date is available use “N.d.” in place of the date.
- Include the state abbreviation only if the city of publication is not well known (i.e. New
York, Chicago, and Los Angeles do not need a state abbreviation). For foreign cities
provide the name of the country.
Examples of Formatted References
Book: One Author
Gurr, Ted Robert, ed. 1989. Violence in America. Vol. 1, The History of Crime. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Mason, Karen. 1974. Women’s Labor Force Participation. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.
Book with Two Authors
Mouer, Ross and Hirosuke Kawanishi. 2005. A Sociology of Work in Japan. New York:
Cambridge University Press
Book: Two or More Authors
Lunsford, Andrea and Lisa Ede. 1990. Singular Texts/Plural Authors: Perspectives on Collaborative Writing. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Patten, Michael A., Guy McCaskie, and Philip Unitt. 2003. Birds of the Salton Sea: Status, Biogeography, and Ecology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Scholarly Journal Article
Author’s full name, inverted so that last name appears first. Year. “Article Title in Title Caps and in Quotes.” Journal Title in Title Caps and Italicized Volume Number(Issue Number):page numbers of article.
Print Journal Article with One Author
Garcia, Alma M. 1998. “An Intellectual Odyssey: Chicana/Chicano Studies Moving Into the
Twenty-first Century.” Journal of American Ethnic History 18(1):109.
Print Journal Article with Two or More Authors
Exum, William H., Robert J. Menges, Bari Watkins, and Patricia Berglund. 1984. “Making It at the Top: Women and Minority Faculty in the Academic Labor Market.” American Behavioral Scientist 27(3):301-324.
For additional information on using the ASA style, see the American Sociological Association Style Guide, 4th edition, pp. 43-45.